A model of a universe in which space is four-dimensional. Time is information. The fields of elementary forces are additional dimensions.
In physics, we usually come to new knowledge in two ways, which I will present with two typical examples,
The first example; The curvature of space that Einstein recognized from the equations he obtained while working on the theory of relativity. So the phenomenon was first defined in the imaginary mathematical world to show that this phenomenon also exists in the real physical world.
Another example: the shape of the planet earth. The first knowledge of the shape of the earth that people had simply by looking at the space around them indicated that the earth was a flat plate, the emergence of new evidence such as the angle of sunlight at different latitudes, the appearance on the horizon of higher parts of an incoming ship, and others. they pointed to the fallacy of the original idea that the earth is a flat plate, and a sequence of logical inferences led to the realization that the sphere was a probable shape of the earth. Only in this case are all the then known cognitions explained without logical paradoxes. Only later was it determined by measurement that the earth has the shape of an ellipsoid and an equation was set up that accurately describes that shape. A lot of little knowledge that cannot be explained creates pressure to radically change our picture of the world. This way of developing science is most similar to the evolution of living organisms.
EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH AS A TOOL FOR THE PROGRESS OF PHYSICS
The first step is to define all known phenomena such as space, time, mass, and all measured properties of these phenomena and their interaction.
The second step is to set a minimum number of arbitrary rules that link these physical phenomena.
The third step is to reject all rules that give predictions of the behavior of physical phenomena that are in conflict with the measured values.
Repeat the process until satisfactory solutions are reached.
The set of rules thus obtained would have to describe the physical world more or equally than existing theories, would not be burdened by the historical development of physics and possible mistakes made long ago and are deeply woven into the foundations of physics. As such, they have survived to this day and hamper the progress of physics. At the same time, it provides the possibility of introducing very "strange" rules that would otherwise be difficult to ever consider, because physicists generally consider only those phenomena that appear in their equations, we would significantly expand the possible set of solutions in physics.
To illustrate this approach, I would cite one set of three rules that ultimately resulted in a new model of the universe. The first two rules can be called energy rules and the third rule is more philosophical in nature but still, it is generally present in nature.
Rule 1. Everything is energy, everything that physically exists is just a different form of energy.
Rule 2. The vector sum of all momentum in all dimensions is equal to zero.
Rule 3. Nature always chooses the most symmetrical solution for any physical phenomenon.
Rule 1. Everything is energy, there is no phenomenon in the universe that is not just a different form of energy. All phenomena that exist in our universe, matter, space, force fields, and everything else are just forms of energy. That mass is one form of energy was shown by Einstein in his work, it was difficult to accept but it turned out to be true, now we need to go a step further and generalize the idea of energy as the only component of the universe, meaning space and matter and absolutely everything that exists in the universe is just one form of energy. The law of conservation of energy is always valid in the whole universe, meaning the whole universe is a closed system.
A very important consequence of the assumption that all energy is that there is no infinitesimal or infinitely large quantity of any phenomenon in the universe (mass, space, force…).
That there is no infinitely large quantity stems from the fundamental assumption that total energy is finite and that all phenomena in the universe are made of one part of that energy, so that no phenomenon can have an infinitely large amount.
That there is no infinitesimal quantity stems from the assumption that everything is energy and it always has its smallest parts - quantum energy. In 4+model we have the smallest elements of space, time, and all other phenomena in space.
Rule 2. The vector sum of all momentum in all dimensions is equal to zero. Momentum is known in classical physics as the amount of motion, however, it is a much broader term. It appears in all dimensions and the rule that the total vector sum of momentum is equal to zero applies everywhere.
Information is the only phenomenon in the universe that is not directly made of energy. It could theoretically exist in its abstract world independent of the real world made of energy. This abstract world could include other universes or phenomena unknown to us. Looking at the information in our universe we see that the source, carrier and receiver of information are always made of energy, this makes it deeply connected to energy.
n this model of the universe, time is information, it is not made of energy. Time is a specific type of information, it springs from events that take place in the material universe.
THE CURRENT STATE OF PHYSICS
Observing the current state of physics and the description of the universe it offers, two contradictory facts are visible:
The first is that with today’s theories we can predict and describe all phenomena involving elementary particles and force fields, meaning almost everything that surrounds us on our middle scale of the magnitude we can mathematically describe. Many of these phenomena are logical and clear but many of them are only mathematically described without being able to be understood logically. This is not my opinion but is more of a general view of most physicists, for example, Feynman said “We use the numbers in all our theories, but we don’t understand them - what they are, or where they come from. I believe that from a fundamental point of view, this is a very interesting and serious problem. "
The second fact is that on a large scale we do not understand the universe at all, what shape it is, how big it is, the fact that it used to be very small and finally expanding at a finite speed and now it seems to be - infinitely large, a problem with dark energy, with missing antimatter and a number of other great problems tell us that we do not understand something great about the very essence of the universe
Consider now one thought experiment, In 3D space, we put an inclined plane on a flat surface of the table, we put a ball on an inclined plane, as soon as we let it the ball will start rolling towards the bottom of the inclined plane, the 3D observer will immediately understand why the ball moved.
If there were 2D beings on the table observing the same event, they would not understand why the ball moved, the 2D being could devise a mathematical solution that accurately describes the motion of the ball but could hardly understand the event itself. Now imagine that there are 1D beings on the same table who also observe the same event, they could also develop a mathematical apparatus to describe the event but it would have to be much more complicated and the event itself would be even less understandable to them. So the "shut up and calculate" approach would be the only one possible for 1D beings.
So a very simple and logical event that takes place in a multidimensional universe translates into a very complicated and not intuitive event in a less dimensional universe.
This is exactly the state we have in physics today, we know how to describe many events mathematically, but we cannot understand them. (Obviously, we are those small-dimensional beings who struggle with understanding the universe)
The 4+model envisages 4 spatial dimensions + additional dimensions.
Everything is energy, in the 4+Model all phenomena are made of energy. So space is a form of energy. The vast majority of the energy of the universe exists in the form of space, only a small part is the energy of particles.
Space itself has the shape of a 4D sphere. The dimension that goes from the center of the sphere outwards is different from the other three because it is directed, it has its beginning and end while the other three spatial dimensions are closed, each in itself.
Space (like all other phenomena) has its smallest parts - the elements of space. Their size and arrangement give the structure of space, this structure is responsible for many phenomena, among others, and for increases in entropy.
Time is a parameter that describes changes in 4D space. Time is not a dimension, it is information.
Additional dimensions are related to the energy of particles when a particle reaches an element of space, it "transfers" part of the energy of that element of space to certain additional dimensions.
The 4+model gives us the ability to understand all phenomena in the universe. I consider this to be the main feature of the model, physics and common sense have finally reconciled. We can understand the size and shape of the universe, the nature of space, mass, energy ... It also gives us solutions to almost all the great puzzles in physics:
Lack of antimatter
The nature of dark energy
Increasing entropy with time
It gives us the answer to what the rest mass is
Gives the cause and description of gravity on the smallest scale of magnitude
More about everything on page 4 + MODEL
EVIDENCE TO CONFIRM THE VALIDITY OF THE MODEL
That this is not just a list of beautiful wishes is best confirmed by the equation for calculating kinetic energy that I came up with exclusively using the 4+ model, it is the same equation that Einstein came up with through the special theory of relativity. Such a specific prediction cannot give a fundamentally wrong model.
Another important detail is the appearance of increasing entropy over time. The 4+ model not only allows the entropy to increase with time, it predicts it, and gives a logical explanation for why it was so low at the beginning of time. Entropy is a consequence of the shape of space and its structure on the smallest scale of size. The movement of particles in such a space inevitably leads to an increase in entropy. As far as I know, this is the first theory to predict a change in entropy. more in the chapter on the shape of the universe and entropy, although for a full understanding it is necessary to read the description of the whole model.
The most impressive feature of the model is its integrity and logic. There is not a single paradox in the whole model. For all the phenomena that I have considered so far (the model is still being developed), there is a completely logical explanation, why they are exactly as they are. For example, what is the rest mass, what is energy, what is the size and shape of the universe? Why the universe seems to be flat and infinite. These are all questions that finally have an answer, for some they have a definite answer, for some more measurements need to be made.
PHILOSOPHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF A NEW MODEL OF THE UNIVERSE
A few things I would point out:
The first is the incredible essential simplicity of the universe, although it is very complex the whole consists of only one ingredient - energy. Our universe is maximally symmetrical. Complex phenomena that are maximally simple and symmetrical we humans usually perceive as beautiful, according to this principle our universe is incredibly beautiful.
The other thing is just the viability of a universe like this, there is no indication that it could have a time end, what we see today is probably just another form in an infinite cyclical universe. Energy is eternal it can only change its shape. This is the answer that philosophers have wanted to grasp for generations.
The third thing is the one that tickles the imagination the most, it is Information, it is the only known phenomenon that does not have to be a part of this universe, it could be the connection of a universe like this with something that is outside of it. (for all those who crave spirituality - study the information, they are the only phenomenon that is not necessarily part of this material universe :)
GREAT PREDICTION OF 4+ MODELS
This model of the universe predicts the possibility of instantaneous communication at any distance. This communication does not go by expanding any field of force nor does it go over particles, it can only be done by manipulating space itself.
Unfortunately, the technical requirements are huge. We will probably wait for decades to make transmitters due to the need for huge amounts of energy and advanced technologies. The receiver is significantly less demanding, it could be made already with the current technique.
Description of work: if we have material point A and point B at an arbitrary distance when there is space between them with little matter, they remain at the same distance, when a certain amount of very dense substance is placed between them, it causes a small shrinkage of space. the particle and thus pulls one point towards another, the change itself is instantaneous. By the controlled supply and discharge of matter between these two points, we cause them to oscillate towards each other and vice versa. By reading this oscillatory motion we get a message that is sent through the rhythm of bringing and removing mass between particles.
Such communication would take place in real-time regardless of distance. The problem of transmitter power and receiver sensitivity remains. The technical challenges are huge but there are no theoretical barriers to communication failures.
If there are civilizations that are more advanced than us they certainly communicate this way, it is possible that only our galaxy has many civilizations that are in constant communication but it all passes us by because we are not yet sufficiently developed. Now we have a chance to change that.